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Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make traditional experimental approaches difficult. Yet, the current progression of climate change science offers new insights from recent syntheses, models, and experiments, providing enough information to start planning now for a future that will likely include an increase in disturbances and rapid changes in forest conditions.
Few financial mathematical books have discussed mathematically acceptable boundary conditions for the degenerate diffusion equations in finance. In The Time-Discrete Method of Lines for Options and Bonds, Gunter H Meyer examines PDE models for financial derivatives and shows where the Fichera theory requires the pricing equation at degenerate boundary points, and what modifications of it lead to acceptable tangential boundary conditions at non-degenerate points on computational boundaries when no financial data are available.Extensive numerical simulations are carried out with the method of lines to examine the influence of the finite computational domain and of the chosen boundary conditions on option and bond prices in one and two dimensions, reflecting multiple assets, stochastic volatility, jump diffusion and uncertain parameters. Special emphasis is given to early exercise boundaries, prices and their derivatives near expiration. Detailed graphs and tables are included which may serve as benchmark data for solutions found with competing numerical methods.
This book presents a market-consistent valuation framework for implicit embedded options in life insurance contracts. This framework is used to perform an empirical analysis based on more than 110,000 actual and in-force life insurance policies and with a focus on the modeling of interest rates. Its results are the answer to the central question posed in the objectives: What value do the embedded options and guarantees considered have? This question is answered both absolutely and relative to the current policy reserves, from the perspective of the insurer, the policyholder and the shareholder respectively
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